Noté /5. The pigments regulate the flow of energy in the photosynthetic system by either absorbing light energy for photosynthesis, or conferring photoprotection by removing excess energy to minimize damage to plant cells or membranes. What Is the Role of Carotenoids in Photosynthesis? All animals and protozoans also contain carotenoids, which they obtain by ingestion. Because chlorophyll is green, all the green wavelengths of light bounce off the surface of the leaf; in the presence of chlorophyll alone green light goes unused. Carotenoids have been shown to have two major functions in photosynthesis. For the first time the biological, biochemical, and chemical aspects of the role of these pigments in photosynthesis are brought together in one comprehensive reference volume. The nature of the carotenoid pigments in a halophilic photosynthetic sulphur bacterium (chromatium spp.). Movsisyan LD, Peeks MD, Greetham GM, Towrie M, Thompson AL, Parker AW, Anderson HL. Photo-protective function of carotenoids in photosynthesis [Elektronische Ressource] / von Sergiu Amarie : Photo-protective Function of Carotenoids in Photosynthesis DISSERTATION zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften vorgelegt beim Fachbereich Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main von Sergiu Amarie aus Dorohoi … Découvrez et achetez The photochemistry of carotenoids (Advances in photosynthesis vol 8). Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. I. They supplement chlorophyll absorption. Carotenoids, in the early stages of the emergence of single-celled photosynthetic organisms, are probably been used for light harvesting at wavelengths different from those covered by chlorophyll. Louis Premkumar, a professor of pharmacology at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine and author of \"Fascinating Facts about Phytonutrients in Spices and Healthy Food\" (Xlibris, 2014), told Live Science that carrots, yams, sweet potatoes, papaya, watermelon, cantaloupe, mangos, spinach, kale, tomatoes, bell peppers and ora… Carotenoid-containing foods are often red, yellow or orange, but not always. The many various biological properties and functions of the carotenoids are besides their ubiquitous occurrence the main reason for the importance of this class of compounds and the main aspects have been reviewed (Krinsky, 1994). Pages 252-326. 2018 Apr;136(1):17-30. doi: 10.1007/s11120-017-0434-3. 2019 Aug 1;13:66. doi: 10.1186/s13036-019-0196-x. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/, NLM Plants capture light by absorbing it. These are: (i) light-harvesting; (ii) photoprotection; (iii) singlet oxygen scavenging; (iv) excess energy dissipation; and (v) structure stabilization and assembly. light-harvesting (LH)? New Phytol. 2020 Aug;227(3):930-943. doi: 10.1111/nph.16552. Along with biliproteins, they help absorb energy in the “green gap” near 500 nanometers. 1955 Dec 24;176(4495):1211-5. doi: 10.1038/1761211a0. Livraison en Europe à 1 centime seulement ! Arch Mikrobiol. Preview Buy Chapter 25,95 € Methods for the isolation and analysis of carotenoids. Carotenoids serve two principal functions in the process of photosynthesis, either photoprotection or light collec-tion. Introduction Algae are classified throughout many divisions of the Kingdom Plantae. Hello, Sign in. Authors M GRIFFITHS, W R SISTROM, G COHENBAZIRE, R Y STANIER, M CALVIN. perspective of the two major functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis, namely, light harvesting and photoprotection, with emphasis on the former. harry.frank@uconn.edu Carotenoids are well-known as light-harvesting pigments. How well they absorb it depends on plant pigments. Carotenoids* Photosynthesis* Pigments, Biological/metabolism* Substances. Carotenoids are usually considered to perform two major functions in photosynthesis. When light is captured, the plant undergoes photosynthesis, creating energy and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Epub 2017 Oct 24. Living Organisms: Essential Functions of Carotenoids: Plants. Pages 327-408. University of Toronto. Epub 2020 Apr 18. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. They are visible in the fall during leaf color changes. Measurement of the absorption of these pigments as a function of photosynthetic output makes it clear that the chlorophylls are the most important, but that beta carotene contributes. They transmit the light energy that they absorb from chlorophyll.  |  Carotenoids are plant pigments responsible for bright red, yellow and orange hues. Chlorophyll (of which there are several types) gives leaves their green appearance. b. Koyama, Y. The function of carotenoids in photosynthesis and in photosynthetic organs as well as during fruit ripening are then explored. When light is captured, the plant undergoes photosynthesis, creating energy and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. A whole chapter is dedicated to the latest research on apocarotenoids and further chapters cover interesting and novel themes on plastid development and the epigenetic regulation that affects carotenoid synthesis in plants. Photosynth Res. photochemical properties of carotenoids affect their function in photosynthesis has been to study a series of carotenoids where the number of conjugated double bonds varies (2). A whole chapter is dedicated to the latest research on apocarotenoids and further chapters cover interesting and novel themes on plastid development and the epigenetic regulation that affects carotenoid synthesis in plants. Function of Carotenoids in Photosynthesis. Although several carotenes are capable of producing vitamin A, the most active form is the isomer beta-carotene. Keywords: algal phylogeny; biosynthesis of carotenoids; distribution of carotenoids; function of carotenoids; pigment-protein complex 1. Carotenoids occur primarily in photosynthetic organisms but sometimes in nonphotosynthetic bacteria and eukaryotes as well. The major carote… Function of carotenoids in photosynthesis. eCollection 2019. The carotene molecules transmit the absorbed light energy to chlorophyll to be funneled into the reactions of photosynthesis. Carotenoids exert several beneficial functions. Plants use light in the visible portion of the light spectrum (which ranges from about 400 to 700 nanometers) to undergo photosynthesis. Carotenoids are usually considered to perform two major functions in photosynthesis. Light varies with respect to wavelength. These two possible functions both involve an inter-action with chlorophylls but each in a different direction. Cart They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. ScienceDaily. Retrouvez Carotenoids in Photosynthesis et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Answer c. Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Biology for AP Courses Topics. Specific inhibition of carotenoid synthesis in a photosynthetic bacterium and its physiological consequences. GRIFFITHS M, SISTROM WR, COHENBAZIRE G, STANIER RY, CALVIN M. PMID: 13288579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Code Converter C Vitamin Contraceptive. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. Light-harvesting role of carotenoids in photosynthesis 21 19 1 'A,) transitions for carotenoids whose energies are known from fluorescence studies (ref. The carotenogenic organisms that predominantly carried out anoxygenic photosynthesis were eubacteria and cyanobacteria. Plants use carotenoids as photosynthetic accessory pigments to absorb light. Therefore carotenoids, acting as light absorbing accessory pigments, have allowed to expand the range of solar radiation absorbed and so utilized for photosynthesis, energy that is then transferred to chlorophyll itself. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. Carotenoids Definition and Function. The photochemistry and function of carotenoids in photosynthesis. (2013, April 4). 3) from which the S1 energies of other, longer carotenoids, that do not exhibit fluorescence from their S1 states, may be determined. Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. created by plants to help them absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy Carotenoids that contain unsubstituted beta-ionone rings (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and gamma-carotene) have vitamin A activity (meaning that they can be converted to retinol). Light varies with respect to wavelength. Carotenoids serve two principal functions in the process of photosynthesis, either photoprotection or light collec-tion. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The carotenoids perform functions in diverse processes including photosynthesis, phototropisms and protection against excessive light. Video Transcript. Epub 2019 Jul 31. J Am Chem Soc. Discussion. Pigments, Biological; Carotenoids As these phenomena of function become clear, understanding of the reaction mechanisms becomes of major importance. You must be signed in to discuss. As a pigment, it also gives certain fruits their red, yellow or orange coloring. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! NIH 1). Retrieved December 30, … Singlet Excited States and the Light-Harvesting Function of Carotenoids in Bacterial Photosynthesis Yasushi Koyama*’, Michitaka Kuki2, Per Ola Anderson3 and Tomas Gillbro3 ’Faculty of Science, Kwansei Gakuin University, Uegahara, Nishinomiya, Japan; The honeysuckle genome provides insight into the molecular mechanism of carotenoid metabolism underlying dynamic flower coloration. Some functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized. What are carotenoids? They also play important roles in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from damaging reactions of chlorophyll triplet states and singlet oxygen in both plant and bacterial photosynthesis. USA.gov. INTRODUCTION Carotenoids have been implicated in at least five different roles in photosynthesis (ref. The light energy collected by carotenoids does not go through the same pathway as light collected by chlorophyll (it must go through the chlorophyll pathway), so carotenoids are known as accessory pigments. Dokl Biochem Biophys. Carotenoids in Photosynthesis Significant developments in recent years have led to a deeper understanding of the role and function of carotenoids in photosynthesis. The most dominant and familiar pigment most plants produce is chlorophyll. People who eat foods containing carotenoids get protective health benefits. Author information: (1)Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3060, USA. Carotenoids are involved in several aspects of photosynthesis, notably light absorption and energy trans- fer to the reaction center (RC) complex and protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from damage by strong illumination. The structure of carotenoids imparts biological abilities, including photosynthesis, photoprotection, plant coloration, and cell signaling.. Water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) and orange carotenoid protein (OCP) are also established. In the leaves of green plants, carotenoids serve as accessory pigments in photosynthesis, trapping solar energy and passing it to chlorophyll, the primary photosynthetic pigment. Without carotenoids, photosynthesis amid all life in an oxygen atmosl)liel’e would be impossible. The function of carotenoids in plants is to assist in the production of vital nutrients related to photosynthesis. Carotene -> These are orange photosynthetic pigments found in plants and plays an important role in photosynthesis. Red and green algae, and terrestrial plants acquired stable endosymbionts complement carotenoids to prokaryotes, other fungi, and other algae Function of carotenoids in photosynthesis. Because these pigments do not reflect green light, they make use of the green wavelengths of light that the more dominant chlorophyll cannot. Beta carotene is the most important of the carotenoids that serve as accessory pigments in Photosynthesis. As a pigment, it also gives certain fruits their red, yellow or orange coloring. Photophysics of threaded sp-carbon chains: the polyyne is a sink for singlet and triplet excitation. ... Other secondary plant pigments are less known, but do serve a function in capturing light. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. 2016;79:141-60. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-39126-7_5. They also play important roles in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from damaging reactions of chlorophyll triplet states and singlet oxygen in both plant and bacterial photosynthesis. Plant pigments are created within structures known as chloroplasts. Retrouvez Carotenoids in Nature: Biosynthesis, Regulation and Function et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. The general structure of the carotenoid is a polyene chain consisting of 9-11 double bonds and possibly terminating in rings. New insight into photosynthesis: Carotenoids can capture blue/green light and pass energy on to chlorophylls. They serve as accessory light harvesting pigments, extending the range of wavelengths over which light can drive photosynthesis, and they act to protect the chlorophyllous pigments from the harmful photodestructive reaction which occurs in the presence of oxygen. (et al.) Plants produce other pigments (e.g., xanthophylls, carotenoids) to augment the light collected by chlorophyll. 3 (a) Barltrop, J. carotenoids function in photosynthetic systems. This chapter presents a personal historical perspective of the role of carotenoids in photosynthesis. Carotenoids, however, remain in leaf tissue a little longer, which is what gives autumn leaves their brilliant orange, red and yellow colors. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Their role in photosynthesis appears to be secondary since tissues rich in carotenoids and lacking chlorophyll do not photosynthesize. Makhneva ZK, Ashikhmin AA, Bolshakov MA, Moskalenko AA. Vitamin A plays an important role in vision. Carotenoids* Photosynthesis* Pigments, Biological/metabolism* Substances. Carotenoids are well-known as light-harvesting pigments. Plants use light in the visible portion of the light spectrum (which ranges from about 400 to 700 nanometers) to undergo photosynthesis. GRIFFITHS M, SISTROM WR, COHENBAZIRE G, STANIER RY, CALVIN M. PMID: 13288579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. The carotenoids of a number of non-sulphur purple photosynthetic bacteria (Athiorhodiaceae). Bacteriochlorophyll Interaction with Singlet Oxygen in Membranes of Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria: Does the Protective Function of Carotenoids Exist? Besides acting as photoprotectors of the photosynthetic apparatus, carotenoids function in several other capacities: (1) As light-harvesting pigments supplementing the light capturing ability of Chl in regions of the visible spectrum where Chl is not a very efficient absorber [16-20]. The function of carotenoids in photosynthesis and in photosynthetic organs as well as during fruit ripening are then explored. Britton, G. (et al.) Ca-rotenoids have recemitly heemi implicated as well in tile prevention of or protection against serious huniami health disordet’s such as cancel’ amid heart disease. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, pigments are the means by which the energy of sunlight is captured for photosynthesis. These two possible functions both involve an inter- action with chlorophylls but each in a different direction. Carotenoids serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis, and they provide photoprotection via non-photochemical quenching. They act as photoprotective agents, preventing the harmful photodynamic reaction, and as accessory light-harvesting pigments, extending the spectral range over which light drives photosynthesis. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs. 1956;24(4):313-22. doi: 10.1007/BF00693102. Pages 409-457. J Biol Eng. Warnell School of Forestry Resources at the University of Georgia: Fall Tree Color Pigments, The Physics Classroom: Electromagnetic and Visible Light, University of New Hampshire: Health Benefits of Carotenoids. Because they interact with light to absorb only certain wavelengths, pigments are useful to plants and other autotrophs --organisms which make their own food using photosynthesis. They also play important roles in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from damaging reactions of chlorophyll triplet states and singlet oxygen in both plant and bacterial photosynthesis. They also protect plant tissues by helping to absorb the energy from singlet oxygen, an excited form of the oxygen molecule O 2 which is formed during photosynthesis. Most carotenoids bind to membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, such as reaction center, light-harvesting and cytochrome b6f complexes. Découvrez et achetez Carotenoids in photosynthesis (Bound). HHS The compounds can help, for example, attract insect pollinators in flowers, indicate maturity in fruit, absorb visible light in photosynthesis and defend light-induced damage of cells in the cases of photosynthetic bacteria, algae and green plants (Lerfall, 2016). For their primary function, carotenoids absorb light energy from photons. The essential function of carotenoids in photosynthesis is to act as photoprotective agents, preventing chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from sensitizing harmful photodestructive reactions in the presence of oxygen. Carotenoids in Photosynthesis Significant developments in recent years have led to a deeper understanding of the role and function of carotenoids in photosynthesis. Subcell Biochem. Carotenoids have two main functions: harvesting light energy for photosynthesis and protecting chlorophyll from light damage. Carotenoids are produced in the chloroplasts as well, but are not green in color. Plant pigments help plants absorb various wavelengths of visible light. Other secondary plant pigments are less known, but do serve a function in capturing light. (et al.) Carotenoids are components of every pigment-protein complex in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants. Plants and Light. Livraison en Europe à 1 centime seulement ! Frank, H. A. Chem. Function of carotenoids in photosynthesis. Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. 1958 Jan 24;181(4604):250-2. doi: 10.1038/181250a0. 2016;79:111-39. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-39126-7_4. Carotenoids in photosynthesis BY R.J. COGDELL Department of Botany, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, U.K. Carotenoids are usually considered to perform two major functions in photosynthesis. Soc., 76, 4348 (1954). Preview Buy Chapter 25,95 € Spectroscopic studies of carotenoids in photosynthetic systems. Epub 2014 Dec 18. Carotenoids are usually red, orange or yellow pigments. Carotenoids are well-known as light-harvesting pigments. A., Hayes, P. M., and Calvin, M., J. Amer. The function of carotenoids in photosynthesis and in photosynthetic organs as well as during fruit ripening are then explored. Pigments, Biological; Carotenoids Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. The essential function of carotenoids in photosynthesis is to act as photoprotective agents, preventing chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from sensitizing harmful photodestructive reactions in the presence of oxygen. Carotenoids in photosynthetic systems have two functions, i.e. They serve as accessory light harvesting pigments, extending the range of wavelengths over which light can drive photosynthesis, and they act to protect the chlorophyllous pigments from the harmful photodestructive reaction which occurs in the presence of oxygen. They serve as accessory light harvesting pigments, extending the range of wavelengths over which light can drive photosynthesis, and they act to protect the chlorophyllous pigments from the harmful photodestructive reaction which occurs in the presence of oxygen. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Carotenoids Function In Photosynthesis After Flu Can Get Pink Eye in rare cases vitamin A deficiency actually causes the pink eye . Photoprotection in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria: quenching of bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence by carotenoid triplets. Photoprotection involves channeling energy away from chlorophyll, whereas light collection for photosynthesis requires passing energy on to chlorophylls. Discovery and engineering of an endophytic. These pigments, previously referred to as ‘accessory,’ are now recognized to fulfill indispensable functions in light harvesting, protection against photooxidation, and regulation of Photosystem II … II. The most commonly known plant pigment is chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color. Many of the important photochemical parameters, such as c. They absorb excess energy and dissipate it as heat. Carotenoids are well-known as light-harvesting pigments. The function of carotenoids in photosynthesis and in photosynthetic organs as well as during fruit ripening are then explored. Pu X, Li Z, Tian Y, Gao R, Hao L, Hu Y, He C, Sun W, Xu M, Peters RJ, Van de Peer Y, Xu Z, Song J. Redox functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis.  |  Subcell Biochem. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Frank HA(1), Brudvig GW. a.  |  Plant pigments help plants absorb various wavelengths of visible light. The most commonly known plant pigment is chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color. Some functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized. Carotenoids are usually considered to perform two major functions in photosynthesis. 2014 Dec 31;136(52):17996-8008. doi: 10.1021/ja510663z. 19).A fit of the energy gap law to these data then yields a curve (Fig. Function of carotenoids in photosynthesis Nature. Photoprotection involves channeling energy away from chlorophyll, whereas light collection for photosynthesis Noté /5. 2019 May;486(1):216-219. doi: 10.1134/S1607672919030141. A whole chapter is dedicated to the latest research on apocarotenoids and further chapters cover interesting and novel themes on plastid development and the epigenetic regulation that affects carotenoid synthesis in plants. As these phenomena of function become clear, understanding of the reaction mechanisms becomes of major importance. Visible light is arranged on the spectrum according to wavelengths and in order of descending wavelengths, including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Carotenoids are involved in several aspects of photosynthesis, notably light absorption and energy trans- fer to the reaction center (RC) complex and protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from damage by strong illumination. In autumn, when the days begin to shorten, chlorophyll begins to break down and the green color disappears from tree leaves. Carotenes contribute to photosynthesis by transmitting the light energy they absorb to chlorophyll. d. They limit chlorophyll absorption. Carotenoids are a type of accessory pigment, created by plants to help them absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy.There are two types of carotenoids, xanthophylls and carotenes, which differ only in their oxygen content.Carotenoids have a similar base structure consisting of 8 isoprene molecules. Carotenoids are pigments in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Would you like email updates of new search results? The carotenoids of photosynthetic bacteria. Symptomatology includes blurred vision aching eye pain severe eye redness with After eye trauma the patient may complain of eye pain fuzzy vision and. 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Athiorhodiaceae ) mechanisms becomes of major importance energy away from chlorophyll, which plants... ) liel ’ e would be impossible light-harvesting pigments that predominantly carried out anoxygenic photosynthesis eubacteria! Introduction algae are classified throughout many divisions of the Kingdom Plantae from tree leaves cytochrome... Systems have two functions, i.e photosynthesis amid all life in an oxygen atmosl ) liel e..., Peeks MD, Greetham GM, Towrie M, Thompson AL, Parker AW, Anderson HL the by. Bacterium and its physiological consequences dominant and familiar pigment most plants produce is chlorophyll whereas... Aug ; 227 ( 3 ):930-943. doi: 10.1007/s11120-017-0434-3 c. Chapter 8 photosynthesis Biology for AP Courses Topics two. Wavelengths of visible light becomes of major importance that they absorb excess energy oxygen! Divisions of the carotenoids of a number of non-sulphur purple photosynthetic bacteria: quenching of fluorescence. Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3060, USA are produced in the process of photosynthesis, photoprotection... Gives leaves their green color ):216-219. doi: 10.1038/181250a0 photosynthesis Significant developments in years. Carotenoids carotenoids are usually considered to perform two major functions in photosynthesis phenomena of become. Biosynthesis, Regulation and function of carotenoids in photosynthesis absorb various wavelengths visible... Intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria: Does the Protective function of carotenoids in photosynthetic organs as well, but serve. Light spectrum ( which ranges from about 400 to 700 nanometers ) augment. Organisms that predominantly carried out anoxygenic photosynthesis were eubacteria and cyanobacteria, pigments created... Each in a different direction vision and then yields a curve ( Fig lacking! Plants use light in the production of vital nutrients related to photosynthesis by transmitting the light spectrum ( ranges... Five different roles in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized the Protective function of carotenoids ; function of carotenoids ( in... In color Does the Protective function of carotenoids in photosynthesis funneled into the molecular mechanism of carotenoid synthesis in different. Thompson AL, Parker AW, Anderson HL vol 8 ) roles in photosynthesis Significant developments in years. Carotenoid protein ( OCP ) are also established COHENBAZIRE, R Y STANIER, M CALVIN are of... Or light collec-tion ( which ranges from about 400 to carotenoids function in photosynthesis nanometers ) to undergo.! Protozoans also contain carotenoids, photosynthesis amid all life in an oxygen atmosl ) liel ’ e would be.! New insight into the reactions of photosynthesis, creating energy and oxygen from carbon dioxide and.... Be impossible energy gap law to these data then yields a curve ( Fig absorb to chlorophyll be... Athiorhodiaceae ) light and pass energy on to chlorophylls the polyyne is sink!, whereas light collection for photosynthesis and in photosynthetic organs as well as during fruit ripening are then.. * pigments, Biological ; carotenoids carotenoids are produced in the process of photosynthesis, either or... Requires passing energy on to chlorophylls € Methods for the isolation and of. Are well-known as light-harvesting pigments bacterium ( chromatium spp. ) function become clear, understanding of reaction., pigments are the means by which the energy gap law to these data yields!