The structural damage caused by the Armenian earthquake of 1988 to a just completed hospital in the model city of Stepanavan, Armenia. ( Log Out /  The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Armenian: Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž) occurred in the northern region of Armenia (then part of the Soviet Union) on Wednesday, December 7, 1988 at 11:41 local time (07:41 UTC). Seismologists thoroughly studied the effects of the Spitak event, including the mainshock and aftershock fault rupture mechanisms and were on site setting up temporary seismometers before the end of 1988. The relationship between the communist authorities and the Armenian society took a turn for the worse in March and the developments climaxed in November when a state of emergency was declared, along with a nighttime curfew, and a mass movement of up to 50,000 Armenians fleeing ethnic violence arrived from Azerbaijan. Leninakan as a result of the earthquake of 7 December 1988. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute's team compared building damage in each city and observed similar results when comparing stone buildings four stories or less in height, but for taller frame-stone buildings, 62% were destroyed at Leninakan while only 23% collapsed at Kirovakan. On the east end the events were shallow while the western side, where the majority of the larger aftershocks were concentrated, the hypocenters were up to 14 kilometers (8.7 mi) deep. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute’s team compared building damage in each city and observed similar results when comparing stone buildings four stories or less in height, but for taller frame-stone buildings, 62% were destroyed at Leninakan while only 23% collapsed at Kirovakan. Mount Ararat, a 5,137 m (16,854 ft) dormant volcano, lies 100 kilometers (62 mi) to the south of the quake’s epicenter in Turkey. Approximately two hundred aftershocks were recorded each day for the first several days of the expedition and at the end of the recording period in February the equipment was still picking up around 100 shocks per day. The 1988 M s ≈ 6.8 earthquake in Armenia resulted in more than 40,000 human casualties and massive destruction of the northwestern region of Armenia. This year we commemorate our thousands of compatriots, […] A total of 189 such individuals were identified through neighbourhood polyclinics in the city of Leninakan and 159 noninjured controls were selected from the same neighbourhoods. The new plan would deviate from Soviet styles that were found to be rigid and outdated, and would mirror characteristics of the local culture. Earthquake engineering experts scrutinized building construction styles and found fault in the poorly constructed apartments and other buildings that were built during the Era of Stagnation under the rule of Leonid Brezhnev. [14] During the earthquake, the northeast-facing side of the Spitak section rode up and over the southwest-facing side. ", "Deaths and Injuries due to the Earthquake in Armenia – A Cohort Approach", "Lessons and questions emerge from Armenian quake", "Armenia's Metsamor NPP, Built Near Fault Line, Gets 10 Year Life Extension", "Armenia's Nuclear Risk; Antiquated Power Station to Be Reopened Despite Wide Concerns About Safety", "USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Facts and Statistics Graphs", "Earthquake Hazards Program: Largest and Deadliest Earthquakes by Year", "All the deadliest and strongest earthquakes since 1900, including coordinates", "6 Found Alive in Armenia 35 Days After Quake", "Fake News, Soviet-Style: The Armenian Earthquake Rescue That Was Too Good To Be True", "Russia 'Concerned' About Armenian Protests Of Foreign-Language Schools", "Soviet Relief Plane Crashes, Killing 78", "Yugoslav Pilots Blamed in Crash of Quake Relief Plane", "Story of Charles Aznavour's "For you Armenia, "Soviet Union: When the Earth Shook – A killer quake devastates Armenia, and the West responds with unprecedented aid", "Faucets, Not Hospitals : Armenia Aid Gets Back to the Basics", "In Armenia, Revival the American Way; U.S. Architects Plan an Earthquake-Resistant Spitak", "Out of Earthquake's Rubble Rises Soviet-U.S. Teamwork", "The Spitak (Armenia) earthquake of 7 December 1988: field observations, seismology and tectonics", "Geometry, segmentation and stress regime of the Spitak (Armenia) earthquake from the analysis of the aftershock sequence", "Earthquake of 7 December 1988, Spitak, Armenia report of the NZNSEE team visit of 1989", Earthquake Damage, the Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988, On this day – 1988: Death toll rises in Armenian earthquake, Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia. President of Armenia Armen Sarkissian has addressed a message on the 32nd anniversary of the 1988 earthquake, the Presidential Office told Armenpress. Spitak, Leninakan, Kirovakan, Stepanavan towns, over hundreds of villages and settlements of Spitak, Akhuryan, Gugark, Aragats, Kalinino, Stepanavan were fully or … In all, 111 countries, 7 international organizations, and 53 national chapters of the Red Cross provided help to Armenia. The effects of local geology and soil conditions upon the earthquake‐induced damage were analyzed and reported by the writers in other publications in the ASCE Geotechnical Journal. Author information: (1)Renal Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. The epicenter was in … In an attempt to offset a six-year-old energy crisis caused by blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, the Armenian government in mid-1995 reactivated a nuclear power plant at Metsamor, close since 1988. after the catastrophic earthquake in northern Armenia. the earthquake in Armenia, 1988* H.K. In the final month of 1988, Armenia was struck by an earthquake that absolutely devastated the northern region of the country and displaced hundreds of thousands of people, throwing many into housing insecurity that's lasted over 30 years. Most of those funds went into the initial relief work and medical care plus the beginning portion of the rebuilding phase. Many case histories pertaining to liquefaction in sandy soil exist, but few exist with respect to gravel and gravelly sands. Earthquake In Armenia 1988 by ArmenianEducation. Beginning with late 1987 the Caucasus region was experiencing a surge in political turmoil with large and near constant demonstrations being held in the capital of Yerevan beginning in February 1988. Updated 13 Dec 2020 18:56 GMT - There were 3 quakes of magnitude 2.0+ in or near Armenia during the past 30 days, the largest largest being a 2.9 event. Eight of the selected sites were equipped with a vertical component velocity transducer along with an FM telemetry link to transfer data back to a central station where a three-component unit was stationed. There the seismic signals were digitized, along with an internal time signal and an external DCF77 time signal, and stored on magnetic tape. The newspaper Pravda complained that the lack of cranes meant that "seconds and hours are being lost—that means lives." Preface ( Log Out /  Noji,2 &A.P. One hundred and thirteen countries sent substantial amounts of humanitarian aid to the Soviet Union in the form of rescue equipment, search teams and medical supplies, but private donations and assistance from non-governmental organizations also had a large part of the international effort. Better epidemiological knowledge of the causes of death and the type of injuries and illnesses caused by earthquakes is clearly es- sential for determining appropriate relief supplies, equipment, and person- nel.l-4 On December 7, 1988, an earthquake registering 6.9 on the Richter scale hit the northern part of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the most seismically active regions of the Soviet … Other officials decided that the town would be relocated several miles to the southwest. The unrest and the opposition movement began in September 1988 with negotiations between the Karabakh Committee and Gorbachev taking place throughout most of 1989. Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage. The paper also stated that too many Soviet personnel were giving advice and not enough people were actually searching. Earthquake [Noji EK, Kelen GD, Armenian HK, Oganessian A, Jones NP, Sivertson KT: The 1988 earthquake in Soviet Armenia: A case stud~z Ann Emerg Med August 1990;I9:891-897.] The east-central segment coincided with the surface breaks between Spitak and Gekhasar, while the west-central portion's break was concealed under an anticline and was not visible at the surface. At that time 20 projects had completed the planning process and some had been approved and construction started. As the 25th anniversary of the Armenian Earthquake approaches, she offers us a story of disaster and relief at the end of the Cold War. Author and professor of geopolitics Pierre Verluise detailed in his 1995 book Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, how a French doctor and director of a Leninakan hospital described that he had seen one hundred victims suffering from the syndrome each day during the first three days. The Soviets and an American group of architects each devised separate outlines for rebuilding the town of Spitak. [26], The epicenters of the recorded aftershocks formed a relatively narrow 50 km (31 mi) band. The negative effect the earthquake had on the economy of Armenia was apparent. Hammer, known for his decades of work with the Occidental Petroleum Corporation, had spoken with Gorbachev prior to leaving and was carrying with him $1 million in relief funds. Private donations from the United States were also significant. The shock occurred in the northern region of Armenia (then part of the Soviet Union) which is vulnerable to large and destructive earthquakes … The team then set out to determine an accurate velocity model using data from the more accurate telemetry network. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The Spitak Earthquake also called Gyumri Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7.2 , that took place on December 7, 1988 at 11:41 local time (07:41 UTC) in the Spitak region of Armenia, then part of the Soviet Union. Leninakan earthquake in the Armenian region of Spitak 1988 by DiFilm. [9] With the hospitals destroyed, and their limited knowledge of the care requirements, the Soviets were not well-equipped to deal with the cases of crush syndrome (trauma associated with building collapses). Mount Ararat, a 5,137 m (16,854 ft) dormant volcano, lies 100 km (62 mi) to the south of the quake's epicenter in Turkey. [41][42], The Tsaghkadzor earthquake on October 20, 1827, was centered about 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Spitak and had a maximum intensity of VIII on the Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. [24][25], The area where Armenia lies is of interest to seismologists and geologists because of the relatively early stage of continental collision occurring there and because the earthquake's strong aftershock sequence and significant surface faulting presented scientists with an environment to study reverse faulting. For many years following World War II the Soviets practiced a methodical top-down approach to urban planning and building, constructing a large number of uniformly built row style apartment units, and the Soviets plan for rebuilding Spitak did not diverge from that approach. At that time the International Atomic Energy Agency’s assistant director general Morris Rosen said of the situation “… you would never build a plant in that area, that’s for sure, with what’s known now. The negative effect the earthquake had on theeconomy of Armenia was apparent. Biggest quake: 2.9 quake 18 km south of Karanlukh, Gegharkunik, Armenia, 4 December 2020 15:35 UTC The region that the earthquake occurred is vulnerable to occasional large and destructive earthquakes and is part of a larger active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps to the Himalayas. , but foreign help would be required to build six additional facilities. Gorbachev, in a TV interview several weeks after his expedited return from New York City, said that the concrete blocks had been built with more than enough sand but too little concrete, and suggested that the concrete had been stolen. 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