Self-categorization theory stems from social identity theory, which holds that conformity stems from psychological processes; that is, being a member of a group is defined as the subjective perception of the self as a member of a specific category. 2020; (ISSN: 1091 ... Neurons were polarization sensitive in large parts of the virtual sky that in some cells extended to the horizon in all directions. Rather, the amount of information and persuasiveness of the arguments mediate the level of polarization experienced. However, in situations where groups are somewhat newly formed and tasks are new, group polarization can demonstrate a more profound influence on the decision-making. Individuals completed the questionnaire and made their decisions independently of others. [23], The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups, leading to the expectation that groups would make decisions that would conform to the average risk level of its members. Definition. The phenomenon has shown that after participating in a discussion group, members tend to advocate more extreme positions and call for riskier courses of action than individuals who did not participate in any such discussion. In‐group polarization does not affect gender attitudes, however. ____Place a check here if you think Mr. A should not take the new job no matter what the probabilities. Psychologists have found that social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter demonstrate that group polarization can occur even when a group is not physically together. In 1979, Charles Lord, Lee Ross and Mark Lepper[9] performed a study in which they selected two groups of people, one group strongly in favor of capital punishment, the other strongly opposed. point out that it is reasonable for people to be less critical of research that supports their current position, but it seems less rational for people to significantly increase the strength of their attitudes when they read supporting evidence. [11] Social comparison processes have also been invoked as an explanation for the effect, which is increased by settings in which people repeat and validate each other's statements. In the next stage of the research, the participants were given more information about the study described on the card they received, including details of the research, critiques of the research, and the researchers' responses to those critiques. Referent informational influence theory explains group polarization as conformity, through self‐categorization, to a local in‐group norm which is polarized as a result of the in‐group being located towards an extreme of the salient comparative context or social frame of reference. Finally, the trial was rerun on all participants using a card that supported the opposite position to that they had initially seen. Group polarization can be observed at political conventions, when platforms of the party are supported by individuals who, when not in a group, would decline to support them. Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Schafer, W. D. (1999). This measure required participants to consider a hypothetical scenario in which an individual is faced with a dilemma and must make a choice to resolve the issue at hand. In order to gain acceptance, people then take a position that is similar to everyone else's but slightly more extreme. Juries display group polarization as well. A defining aspect of polarization, though not its only facet, is a bimodal distribution around conflicting points of view or philosophies. To study polarization in a population faced with rising inequality or a declining economy, we apply methods from cultural evolution and evolutionary game theory (24–27).This approach rests on the idea that each member of a large population uses a strategy p, which is the probability that they choose an interaction with an in-group member versus one with an out-group member. found individual preferences to be irrelevant; it is differences of opinion which will cause the shift. The study of group polarization can be traced back to an unpublished 1961 Master's thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift". asked Apr 6, 2017 in Psychology by Whelma. [4] The studies indicated that when the jurors favored a relatively low award, discussion would lead to an even more lenient result, while if the jury was inclined to impose a stiff penalty, discussion would make it even harsher. Group polarization has been reported to occur during wartime and other times of conflict and helps to account partially for violent behavior and conflict. [31] Similar to the social media platforms, video streaming platforms like YouTube are forming groups unconsciously through intelligent algorithm seeking for extreme contents. [4], While these two theories are the most widely accepted as explanations for group polarization, alternative theories have been proposed. There is a lesson here about punishment judgments in general. The persuasive arguments interpretation holds that individuals become more convinced of their views when they hear novel arguments in support of their position. He observed a phenomenon known as “risky shift”, which appeared to show that when placed in a group setting, individuals were prepared to take riskier decisions than those they might have taken as … In doing so, individuals support the group's beliefs while still presenting themselves as admirable group "leaders". Group polarization is the phenomenon that when placed in group situations, people will make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are in individual situations. The Concept of Group Polarization in Psychology Explained. The study of group polarization began with an unpublished 1961 Master’s thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift", meaning that a group’s decisions are riskier than the average of the individual decisions of members before the group met. [18] These results should be understood in the context of several problems in the implementation of the study, including the fact the researchers changed the scaling of the outcome of the variable, so measuring attitude change was impossible, and measured polarization using a subjective assessment of attitude change and not a direct measure of how much change had occurred. These explanations were gradually narrowed down and grouped together until two primary mechanisms remained, social comparison and informational influence. [4] Furthermore, research suggests that it is not simply the sharing of information that predicts group polarization. The phenomenon also holds that a group's attitudetoward a situation may change in the sense that the individuals' initial attitudes have strengthened and intensified after group discussion, … Gardner, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). ____The chances are 5 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. Group polarization as a concept first came to light in an unpublished study by MIT student James Stoner. People want to be seen as unique, so they start throwing out extreme ideas that get them a … These theories for group polarization can be broken down further into two main categories: normative influence and informative influence. A study conducted by Taylor & MacDonald (2002) featured a realistic setting of a computer-mediated discussion, but group polarization did not occur at the level expected. In surveys carried in 2014, Pew researchers found that 36 percent of Republicans and 27 percent of Democrats responded that the opposing … A decision that is the opposite of what most group members originally favored c. [10] For most issues, new evidence does not produce a polarization effect. Recently, some theorists have argued that group polarization may be partly responsible for the extreme political partisanship that seems ubiquitous in modern society. ET ____The chances are 7 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. [21] This finding demonstrates how one opinion in the group will not sway the group; it is the combination of all the individual opinions that will make an impact. In other words, the extremist will have no impact without interaction. These wires reflect S polarization, but allow P polarization to pass through. Log in. According to the social comparison interpretation, group polarization occurs as a result of individuals' desire to gain acceptance and be perceived in a favorable way by their group. On the other hand, it is very unlikely that his salary will increase much before he retires. [22] The concept of risky shift maintains that a group's decisions are riskier than the average of the individual decisions of members before the group met. This research was pioneered by James A. F. Stoner (1961), who first found the tendency in groups who were considering risk-taking behaviors; the phenomenon was thus initially labeled "risky shift." Group polarization focuses on how groups usually make decisions that are more extreme than the original thoughts and views of the individual team members. The researchers hypothesized that an ingroup confronted by a risky outgroup will polarize toward caution, an ingroup confronted by a caution outgroup will polarize toward risk, and an ingroup in the middle of the social frame of reference, confronted by both risky and cautious outgroups, will not polarize but will converge on its pre-test mean. Before studying the nanowire polarizer, we will check our ana… Assuming most or all group members lean in the same direction, during discussion, items of unshared information supporting that direction are expressed, which provides members previously unaware of them more reason to lean in that direction. Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. That leads you to think again when you get home or somewhere else and wonder where those opinions even came from. . Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis. Rarely these days does a news cycle pass without new stories of political dysfunction in Washington, D.C. Reports of stalemates, fiscal cliffs, and failed grand bargains have begun to erode the public confidence in the ability of our representative institutions to govern effectively. Some of these items or arguments are shared among the members while some items are unshared, in which all but one member has considered these arguments before. [20] The study found that situations that normally favor the more risky alternative increased risky shifts. Very simply, group polarization happens because you take the most extreme part of a bunch of people, add that all up, and get something more extreme. Moreover, computer-mediated discussions often fail to result in a group consensus, or lead to less satisfaction with the consensus that was reached, compared to groups operating in a natural environment. Since the late 1960s, psychologists have carried out a number of studies on various aspects of attitude polarization. Democrats that view Republicans unfavorably has increased from 59 percent to 86 percent over the same time period. Normative Influence states that people will alter their opinions in a group setting in order to fit in or be looked upon more favorably by their peers. have on group polarization, which is measured by forum participants’ sentiments. This tendency also occurred when individual judgments were collected after the group discussion and even when the individual post-discussion measures were delayed two to six weeks. When "group polarization" occurs, what is the result? [35], Group polarization has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior (see political polarization). [11] For those issues where polarization is found, mere thinking about the issue, without contemplating new evidence, produces the effect. [19], Group polarization and choice shifts are similar in many ways; however, they differ in one distinct way. In early studies, the risky-shift phenomenon was measured using a scale known as the Choice-Dilemmas Questionnaire. U.S. political polarization presents biggest ‘risk’ to the world in 2021: Eurasia Group Published: Jan. 4, 2021 at 11:06 a.m. A comparison of individual and group decisions involving risk. Learn group polarization with free interactive flashcards. While attending a convention, Mr. A is offered a job with a small, newly founded company which has a highly uncertain future. [1] The phenomenon also holds that a group's attitude toward a situation may change in the sense that the individuals' initial attitudes have strengthened and intensified after group discussion, a phenomenon known as attitude polarization. Individual responsibility and group decisions involving risk. ____The chances are 1 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. Group polarization theories explore the tendency of people in groups to shift their opinions toward the extreme pole of popular opinion. Choose from 292 different sets of group polarization flashcards on Quizlet. The study found that like-minded individuals strengthened group identity whereas replies between different-minded individuals reinforced a split in affiliation. [29] Another similar study found that in-group prototypes become more polarized as the group becomes more extreme in the social context. 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